In 1884 in Chicago began construction of the first skyscraper. It was as much as 10 floors! However, in the beginning of the next century 10-storey building, it was no surprise, and the construction of skyscrapers in America moved to new York.
Many have seen the photo sitting on a beam of builders somewhere high in the sky over the city, it is often found on posters and covers. And of course, with a sinking heart, thought how? How they got there and how can they not tremble with fear, and quietly eat their lunch? So this post is about how skyscrapers were built in new York.
1. Lunchtime on a Skyscraper- photo from the series Construction Workers Lunching on a Crossbeam (Charles C. Ebbets.)
2. Such a miracle, as the skyscraper would not have been possible without the invention of the steel frame. Assembly of the steel frame of the building is the most dangerous and difficult part of the construction. It is the quality and speed of Assembly of the frame determines whether the project was implemented on time and within budget. That’s why riveters — the most important profession in the construction of a skyscraper.
3. Riveters is a caste with its own laws. Riveters got 15 dollars a day, more than any skilled worker on a construction site; they doesn’t went to work in rain, wind or fog, they weren’t on the staff of the contractor.
4. A platform of boards or just on the steel girder is coal oven. In the furnace rivet — big steel cylinders.
5. Pass the rivet only one way — to throw.
6. The one who melted the rivet turns and silently, making sure the keeper is ready to receive, throws the tongs red-hot 600-gram ingot in his direction. Sometimes on the trajectory already welded beams, to throw want, nice and tight.
7. The keeper stands on the narrow platform or simply on the bare beam near the place of riveting. His goal is to catch a flying piece of ordinary tin canning jar. He does not move so as not to fall. But to catch the rivet it must, otherwise it is a small bomb will fall on the city.
8. The best team does it focus more than 500 times per day, the average is about 250.
9. Workers rest
10. The danger of this work can be illustrated by the following fact: masons at the construction site shall be insured at the rate of 6% of the salary, the carpenters — 4%. The bid clincher — 25-30%.
11. During the construction of the Chrysler building, one person died. At Wall-Street-40, died four. At Empire State, died five.
12. The skyscraper skeleton consists of hundreds of steel sections, the so-called beams. Store them in the construction of a skyscraper is nowhere — nobody will allow to organize the warehouse in the center of the city, in dense areas, on municipal land. Moreover, all components are different, each can be used in a single place, so attempt your organization even of a temporary warehouse, for example on one of the last constructed floors, can lead to great confusion and disrupting the timing of construction.
13. That’s why, when I wrote that the work of the riveters the most important and the most difficult, I did not mention that it is also the most dangerous and heavy. Work harder and more dangerous than them — the work of crane crews.
14. The order for the beams was agreed with the metallurgists until a few weeks ago, the trucks take them to the construction site to the minute. Whatever the weather, they need to unload immediately.
15. Derrick — boom on the hinge, located on the last floor fitters — floor above. The operator of the winch can be located on any floor of already constructed building, because nobody is going to stop the lift and distract other cranes for lifting heavy machinery at some of the higher floors for the convenience of installers. Therefore, lifting multi-ton channel, the operator sees neither the beam nor the car that brought her, nor their friends.
16. The only reference point for the control — hit the bell served an apprenticeship at the signal of the foreman, being together with the whole brigade of dozens of floors above. Impact — includes the winch motor, the kick — off. Fail to hear the punch — bars or rammed a crane arm, or toss with installed vertical beams installers, preparing it to freeze.
17. The foreman, driving the derrick via two operators, one of which he sees, seeking to match the holes for the riveting on the vertical beams installed with raised holes on the channel. Only after that a couple of installers can clip channel huge bolts and nuts.
18. In new York on 6th Avenue there is a monument, erected in 2001. The model became the most famous picture of it here in the preview first. Initially, the monument was made exactly as in the photo, ie 11 dudes sit on the beam. And then the most extreme right was removed. And just because of the fact that he was holding a bottle of whiskey! Hey, prohibition is back?
28. Monuments to the brave builders